THE TEN PHASES OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)
initiation of a system (or project) begins when a business need or opportunity
is identified. A Project Manager should be appointed to manage the project.
This business need is documented in a Concept Proposal. After the Concept
Proposal is approved, the System Concept Development Phase begins.
a business need is approved, the approaches for accomplishing the concept are
reviewed for feasibility and appropriateness. The Systems Boundary Document
identifies the scope of the system and requires Senior Official approval and
funding before beginning the Planning Phase.
concept is further developed to describe how the business will operate once the
approved system is implemented, and to assess how the system will impact
employee and customer privacy. To ensure the products and / or services provide
the required capability on-time and within budget, project resources,
activities, schedules, tools, and reviews are defined. Additionally, security certification
and accreditation activities begin with the identification of system security
requirements and the completion of a high level vulnerability assessment.
user requirements are formally defined and delineate the requirements in terms
of data, system performance, security, and maintainability requirements for the
system. All requirements are defined to a level of detail sufficient for
systems design to proceed. All requirements need to be measurable and testable
and relate to the business need or opportunity identified in the Initiation
physical characteristics of the system are designed during this phase. The
operating environment is established, major subsystems and their inputs and
outputs are defined, and processes are allocated to resources. Everything
requiring user input or approval must be documented and reviewed by the user.
The physical characteristics of the system are specified and a detailed design
is prepared. Subsystems identified during design are used to create a detailed
structure of the system. Each subsystem is partitioned into one or more design
units or modules. Detailed logic specifications are prepared for each software
6. Development Phase
detailed specifications produced during the design phase are translated into
hardware, communications, and executable software. Software shall be unit
tested, integrated, and retested in a systematic manner. Hardware is assembled
various components of the system are integrated and systematically tested. The
user tests the system to ensure that the functional requirements, as defined in
the functional requirements document, are satisfied by the developed or modified
system. Prior to installing and operating the system in a production
environment, the system must undergo certification and accreditation
system or system modifications are installed and made operational in a
production environment. The phase is initiated after the system has been tested
and accepted by the user. This phase continues until the system is operating in
production in accordance with the defined user requirements.
system operation is ongoing. The system is monitored for continued performance
in accordance with user requirements, and needed system modifications are
incorporated. The operational system is periodically assessed through
In-Process Reviews to determine how the system can be made more efficient and
effective. Operations continue as long as the system can be effectively adapted
to respond to an organization’s needs. When modifications or changes are
identified as necessary, the system may reenter the planning phase.
disposition activities ensure the orderly termination of the system and
preserve the vital information about the system so that some or all of the
information may be reactivated in the future if necessary. Particular emphasis
is given to proper preservation of the data processed by the system, so that
the data is effectively migrated to another system or archived in accordance
with applicable records management regulations and policies, for potential