Marshal Sam Manekshaw, as quoted from his own speech to the Officers of DSSC,
Wellington, on 11th November 1998, regarding the real meaning
of ‘Moral Courage’:-
Ladies and Gentlemen, I do not know which of these is more important. When I am
talking to young officers and young soldiers, I should place emphasis on
physical courage. But since I am talking to this gathering, I will lay emphasis
on Moral Courage.
What is moral courage? Moral courage is the ability to distinguish right from
wrong and having done so, say so when asked, irrespective of what your
superiors might think or what your colleagues or your subordinates might want.
A ‘yes man’ is a dangerous man. He may rise very high, he might even become the
Managing Director of a company. He may do anything but he can never make a
leader because he will be used by his superiors, disliked by his colleagues and
despised by his subordinates. So shallow– the ‘yes man’.
I am going to illustrate from my own life an example of moral courage.
In 1971, when Pakistan clamped down on its province, East Pakistan, hundreds
and thousands of refugees started pouring into India. The Prime Minister, Mrs.
Gandhi had a cabinet meeting at ten o’clock in the morning. The following
attended: the Foreign Minister, Sardar Swaran Singh, the Defence Minister, Mr.
Jagjivan Ram, the Agriculture Minister, Mr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, the Finance
Minister, Mr. Yashwant Rao, and I was also ordered to be present.
Ladies and Gentlemen, there is a very thin line between becoming a Field
Marshal and being dismissed. A very angry Prime Minister read out messages from
Chief Ministers of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. All of them saying that
hundreds of thousands of refugees had poured into their states and they did not
know what to do. So the Prime Minister turned round to me and said: “I want you
to do something”.
I said, “What do you want me to do?”
She said, “I want you to enter East Pakistan”.
I said, “Do you know that that means War?”
She said, “I do not mind if it is war”.
I, in my usual stupid way said, “Prime Minister, have you read the Bible?”And
the Foreign Minister, Sardar Swaran Singh (a Punjabi Sikh), in his Punjabi
accent said, “What has Bible got to do with this?”, and I said, “the first
book, the first chapter, the first paragraph, the first sentence, God said,
‘let there be light’’ and there was light.
You turn this round and say ‘let there be war’ and there will be war. What do
you think? Are you ready for a war? Let me tell you –“it’s 28th April, the
Himalayan passes are opening now, and if the Chinese gave us an ultimatum, I
will have to fight on two fronts”.
Again Sardar Swaran Singh turned round and in his Punjabi English said, “Will China
I said, “You are the Foreign Minister. You tell me”.
Then I turned to the Prime Minister and said, “Prime Minister, last year you
wanted elections in West Bengal and you did not want the communists to win, so
you asked me to deploy my soldiers in penny pockets in every village, in every
little township in West Bengal. I have two divisions thus deployed in sections
and platoons without their heavy weapons. It will take me at least a month to
get them back to their units and to their formations. Further, I have a
division in the Assam area, another division in Andhra Pradesh and the Armoured
Division in the Jhansi-Babina area. It will take me at least a month to get
them back and put them in their correct positions. I will require every road,
every railway train, every truck, every wagon to move them. We are harvesting
in the Punjab, and we are harvesting in Haryana; we are also harvesting in
Uttar Pradesh. And you will not be able to move your harvest.
I turned to the Agriculture Minister, Mr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, “If there is a
famine in the country afterwards, it will be you to blame, not me.” Then I
said, “My Armoured Division has only got thirteen tanks which are functioning.”
The Finance Minister, Mr. Chawan, a friend of mine, said, “Sam, why only
“Because you are the Finance Minister. I have been asking for money for the
last year and a half, and you keep saying there is no money. That is why.” Then
I turned to the Prime Minister and said, “Prime Minister, it is the end of
April. By the time I am ready to operate, the monsoon will have broken in that
East Pakistan area. When it rains, it does not just rain, it pours. Rivers
become like oceans. If you stand on one bank, you cannot see the other and the
whole countryside is flooded. My movement will be confined to roads, the Air
Force will not be able to support me, and, if you wish me to enter East
Pakistan, I guarantee you a hundred percent defeat.”
“You are the Government”, I said turning to the Prime Minister, “Now will you
give me your orders?”
Ladies and Gentlemen, I have seldom seen a woman so angry, and I am including
my wife in that. She was red in the face and I said, “Let us see what happens”.
She turned round and said, “The cabinet will meet four o’clock in the evening”.
Everyone walked out. I being the junior most man was the last to leave. As I
was leaving, she said, “Chief, please will you stay behind?” I looked at her. I
said, “Prime Minister, before you open your mouth, would you like me to send in
my resignation on grounds of health, mental or physical?”
“No, sit down, Sam. Was everything you told me the truth?”
“Yes, it is my job to tell you the truth. It is my job to fight and win, not to
She smiled at me and said, “All right, Sam. You know what I want. When will you
“I cannot tell you now, Prime Minister”, I said, but let me guarantee you this
that if you leave me alone, allow me to plan, make my arrangements, and fix a
date, I guarantee you a hundred percent victory”.
That made history.
also need to learn some things from this story… A “yes man” is
dangerous and shallow…. Don’t become a “Yes man”…. Have the moral
courage to speak out the harsh truths…*